Packaging technology supports the large market of liquid milk (II)
III. problems in liquid milk packaging
it will directly measure the wear spots, and it can also process the wear spot image Edit Note 1. Packaging is too monopoly
at present, China's domestic dairy and beverage industry giants such as Guangming, Yili, Sanyuan, Mengniu, Wahaha, Huiyuan and so on are indeed Tetra Pak, accounting for more than 90% of the market share. Yili company alone used 1.48 billion Tetra Pak sterile bags in 2002. Tetra Pak of Sweden sold the first "brick carton aseptic canning machine" to China in 1979, and began to enter the Chinese market. Since then, the history of China's liquid food packaging has changed from bottled to aseptic carton packaging. For more than 20 years, Tetra Pak has gained more than 95% of the market share of China's canning machine market, forming a monopoly position. According to statistics, the annual consumption of sterile cartons in China is about 10billion packages of packaging materials, with a price equivalent to nearly 4billion yuan, accounting for about 10% of the global market share, and increasing at a rate of 20% to 30% every year, becoming the largest and fastest-growing market in the world. By 2004, Tetra Pak's production capacity of sterile packaging boxes in China will increase from the current 1.2 billion packages to 6billion packages. Shandong Quanlin is a newly emerging domestic paper packaging enterprise. The price of a 250 ml packaging box produced by them is 32 cents, and the price of Tetra Pak is 40 cents. Although the quality is the same and the price is cheaper than Tetra Pak, most domestic dairy companies still can only use Tetra Pak's products. Tetra Pak relies on their equipment advantages to bundle and sell its own consumables, so it can occupy most of the market in the case of high prices. Some enterprises reported that Tetra Pak's paper materials have a kind of identification code, and the computer on Tetra Pak's canning machine can only work by recognizing this identification code, but the canning machine with packaging paper from other companies will not work. Tetra Pak's competitor, Quanlin company, also believes that Tetra Pak's customers have no right to choose other packaging materials companies within the period agreed in the contract, and canned machine customers must use Tetra Pak's packaging materials for a long time, so Tetra Pak has achieved the purpose of excluding other competitors.
2. The cost of packaging is too high
with the surge in production, the profit margin of dairy enterprises has not increased significantly, and packaging monopoly is an important reason. Experts pointed out that 1/3 of the cost of buying a bag of fresh milk in the mall was paid for packaging. The 2003 listing report of Yili company showed that 40% of the total sales cost of Yili was packaging. The result of monopolization of one industry is that there is no competition. Without competition, the whole industry is difficult to develop healthily. According to the estimates of authoritative institutions, Tetra Pak's profit margin will be about 20%, which is several times higher than that of some competitors. For example, Elopak in Norway was about 6.5% in 2001, and sigcombibloc was about 12%. A top domestic beverage company that does not take milk as its main product revealed that the company would pay 0.2 yuan for each package of liquid milk it produces because the packaging is too expensive. If 250 ml brick bags are localized, each bag can save 0.1 yuan, which means that dairy enterprises can make an extra profit of 400 yuan per ton of milk. This phenomenon has aroused the attention and concern of the industry, because the high cost of packaging will restrict the development and competition of the whole industry. In addition, at present, the aseptic packaging of liquid milk in China mainly adopts imported equipment, which costs too much, and the price of liquid milk remains high. The preparation of
is about the healthy development of production and consumption. Experts in the dairy industry believe that as a country with "poor milk", the breakthrough to solve the development of China's dairy industry is to develop liquid milk production and achieve sustainable development with low-carbon. The key is to break the current situation of relying on imports for sterile packaging.
3. The proportion of reduced milk is large.
at present, more than 60% of ultra-high temperature sterilized milk and flavored milk produced by enterprises are reduced from milk powder. Even the freshest pasteurized milk on the market is only about 70% pure milk. According to relevant national standards, yogurt and sterilized milk can be made from fresh milk or reduced milk, but pasteurized milk cannot be made from reduced milk. In other words, the ultra-high temperature sterilized milk that ordinary consumers drink is likely to be processed from reduced milk. Obviously, the manufacturers did not effectively inform consumers of this extremely important consumption information. On the contrary, almost all sterilized milk packages were marked with eye-catching fresh milk labels. What is the difference between pure fresh milk and reduced milk? Experts pointed out that after 60 days of storage, the loss ratio of various vitamins in ordinary ultra-high temperature sterilized milk is respectively: "B6" 40%, "B12" 60%, folic acid 0 ~ 100%, and "C" 20 ~ 100%. The degree varies with the oxygen content in the milk. In addition, under high temperature, calcium in milk will precipitate, lactose will coking, and protein will denature and hydrolyze. The production temperature of milk powder is higher, the heat preservation time is longer, and the long-term preservation after production, so the nutritional loss is higher than any pure liquid milk. When milk powder is reduced to liquid milk and processed, the nutritional loss is greater. The ranking of "milk nutritional value ranking" released by a professional media is: fresh milk is gold, yogurt is silver, milk powder is copper, and normal temperature milk is iron. Reasons for this situation: first, the price of pasteurized pure fresh milk in China has been unable to rise. In Guangdong, the 236ml box of xiangmanlou pasteurized milk is only 2.3 yuan, while the 250ml package of ordinary liquid milk sells for 2.5 yuan or even higher. The price difference between ordinary liquid milk and pure fresh milk in China is only oneortwo cents, while the price of pure fresh milk in foreign countries is significantly higher than that of ordinary milk. It can meet the experimental requirements of different levels of research institutes, universities, laboratories and enterprises. Second, the relevant domestic laws and regulations are not perfect. At present, many countries have regulations, that is, if milk powder is used to produce milk, the amount of milk powder must be indicated on the label to protect the interests of consumers. However, China has not issued relevant laws and regulations or systems until today. Relevant departments have turned a blind eye to the equivalent sales of pure fresh milk and reduced milk, have not scientifically adjusted and straightened out the market price, and have not given special policy protection to fresh money sales (such as labeling pure fresh milk with special signs). Due to the absence of legal constraints, some manufacturers have taken advantage of policy loopholes, and some people dare to add milk powder from 10% to 100%. Third, the milk powder market has been seriously impacted by a large number of imported milk powder at low prices. At present, the CIF import price of foreign milk powder is maintained at 15000 yuan/ton. One ton of milk powder can be reduced to eight tons of liquid milk, while the purchase price of eight tons of milk in Guangdong alone is 25000 yuan. Driven by interests, many enterprises have increased the use of imported milk powder. In addition, the consumption psychology of Chinese people is immature and often follow the various advertisements of manufacturers in a muddle headed way, which is easy to be misled; Enterprises do not have the awareness to obviously raise the price of pure fresh milk; The price department did not provide pricing guidance.
4. Aseptic packaging is not popular
aseptic packaging of food refers to packaging sterilized food (beverages, dairy products) in a sterile technical environment and sealing it in sterilized containers, in order to obtain a longer shelf life without preservatives and refrigeration. It can also be simply said that aseptic packaging is sterilization before packaging, non sterile packaging is packaging before sterilization, or only packaging without sterilization. Sterility these precision values can reach a maximum of plus or minus 0.5, including the main advantage of preserving the original nutritional components and flavor of food to the greatest extent and reducing losses under the condition of ensuring sterility. In recent years, aseptic plastic bag packaging and aseptic cup plastic bottle packaging have developed very rapidly. This kind of aseptic packaging mainly uses pet aluminized film and PE composite, while the aseptic cup packaging uses multi-layer coextrusion sheet pp/pe/eva/pvdc/ps. At present, aseptic packaging accounts for only 10% of dairy products in China, while developed countries account for 65%. In addition, the per capita share of milk in China is 5.1kg, while the world's per capita is 38 kg. According to the tenth five year plan, by 2005, China's per capita milk share will reach 10kg, and the total output will reach 13.5 million tons; By 2030, China's per capita share of milk will reach 25kg, with a total output of 42.5 million tons. At the same time, the state has listed aseptic packaging of liquid milk as a priority development project, and invested 2billion yuan to support the development of liquid milk industry. It can be seen that the aseptic packaging of liquid milk in China has great development space and bright market prospects. At the same time, it also brings new opportunities and challenges to our plastic production scientific research institutions
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